5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Gastrointestinal Toxicity
Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain occur with BOSULIF treatment. Monitor and manage patients using standards of care, including antidiarrheals, antiemetics, and fluid replacement.
In the randomized clinical trial in patients with newly-diagnosed Ph+ CML, the median time to onset for diarrhea (all grades) was 3 days and the median duration per event was 3 days.
Among 546 patients in a single-arm study in patients with CML who were resistant or intolerant to prior therapy, the median time to onset for diarrhea (all grades) was 2 days and the median duration per event was 2 days. Among the patients who experienced diarrhea, the median number of episodes of diarrhea per patient during treatment with BOSULIF was 3 (range 1–268).
Thrombocytopenia, anemia and neutropenia occur with BOSULIF treatment. Perform complete blood counts weekly for the first month of therapy and then monthly thereafter, or as clinically indicated. To manage myelosuppression, withhold, dose reduce, or discontinue BOSULIF as necessary [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Adverse Reactions (6)].
5.3 Hepatic Toxicity
Bosutinib may cause elevations in serum transaminases (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST]).
One case consistent with drug induced liver injury (defined as concurrent elevations in ALT or AST greater than or equal to 3×ULN with total bilirubin greater than 2×ULN and alkaline phosphatase less than 2×ULN) occurred without alternative causes in a breast cancer (a disease for which BOSULIF is not indicated) trial of BOSULIF in combination with letrozole. The patient recovered fully following discontinuation of BOSULIF. This case represented 1 out of 1611 patients in BOSULIF clinical trials.
In the 268 patients from the safety population in the randomized clinical trial in patients with newly-diagnosed CML in the BOSULIF treatment group, the incidence of ALT elevation was 31% and AST elevation was 23%. Of patients who experienced transaminase elevations of any grade, 79% experienced their first event within the first 3 months. The median time to onset of increased ALT and AST was 32 and 43 days, respectively, and the median duration was 20 and 15 days, respectively.
Among the 546 patients in a single-arm study in patients with CML who were resistant or intolerant to prior therapy, the incidence of ALT elevation was 18% and AST elevation was 15%. Twenty percent of the patients experienced an increase in either ALT or AST. Most cases of transaminase elevations in this study occurred early in treatment; of patients who experienced transaminase elevations of any grade, more than 80% experienced their first event within the first 3 months. The median time to onset of increased ALT and AST was 35 and 33 days, respectively, and the median duration for each was 21 days.
Perform hepatic enzyme tests monthly for the first 3 months of BOSULIF treatment and as clinically indicated. In patients with transaminase elevations, monitor liver enzymes more frequently. Withhold, dose reduce, or discontinue BOSULIF as necessary [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Adverse Reactions (6)].
5.5 Fluid Retention
Fluid retention occurs with BOSULIF and may manifest as pericardial effusion, pleural effusion, pulmonary edema, and/or peripheral edema.
In the randomized clinical trial of 268 patients with newly-diagnosed CML in the bosutinib treatment group, 1 patient (0.4%) experienced severe fluid retention of Grade 3 pericardial effusion. Among 546 patients in a single-arm study in patients with Ph+ CML who were resistant or intolerant to prior therapy, Grade 3 or 4 fluid retention was reported in 26 patients (5%). Some patients experienced more than one fluid retention event. Specifically, 21 patients experienced Grade 3 or 4 pleural effusions, 7 patients experienced Grade 3 or Grade 4 pericardial effusions, and 6 patients experienced Grade 3 edema.
5.6 Renal Toxicity
An on-treatment decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) has occurred in patients treated with BOSULIF. Table 3 identifies the shift from baseline to lowest observed eGFR during BOSULIF therapy for patients in the pooled leukemia studies regardless of line of therapy. The median duration of therapy with BOSULIF was approximately 14 months (range, 0.03 to 123) for patients in these studies.
|Renal Function Status||N||Normal|
|Mild to Moderate|
|Moderate to Severe|
|Abbreviations: eGFR=estimated glomerular filtration rate; N/n=number of patients.|
|Notes: Grading is based on Modification in Diet in Renal Disease method (MDRD).|
|Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Classification by eGFR: Normal: greater than or equal to 90, Mild: 60 to less than 90, Mild to Moderate: 45 to less than 60, Moderate to Severe: 30 to less than 45, Severe: 15 to less than 30, Kidney Failure: less than 15 ml/min/1.73 m2.|
|Normal||468||102 (21.8)||298 (63.7)||46 (9.8)||16 (3.4)||2 (0.4)||2 (0.4)|
|Mild||639||11 (1.7)||266 (41.6)||250 (39.1)||83 (13.0)||21 (3.3)||3 (0.5)|
|Mild to Moderate||128||0||8 (6.3)||45 (35.2)||57 (44.5)||18 (14.1)||0|
|Moderate to Severe||32||0||1 (3.1)||1 (3.1)||9 (28.1)||17 (53.1)||3 (9.4)|
|Total||1268||113 (8.9)||573 (45.2)||342 (27.0)||165 (13.0)||58 (4.6)||9 (0.7)|
Monitor renal function at baseline and during therapy with BOSULIF, with particular attention to those patients who have preexisting renal impairment or risk factors for renal dysfunction. Consider dose adjustment in patients with baseline and treatment emergent renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].