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MONOFERRIC (Iron Isomaltoside 1000 for Injection)

Health Professional Information

SUMMARY PRODUCT INFORMATION

Route of Administration

Dosage Form / Strength

Clinically Relevant Nonmedicinal Ingredients

Intravenous

solution

100 mg/mL elemental iron

None.

For a complete listing see Dosage Forms, Composition and Packaging section.

Indications And Clinical Use

MONOFERRICTM (Iron Isomaltoside 1000 for Injection) is indicated for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in adult patients who have intolerance or unresponsiveness to oral iron therapy.

The diagnosis must be based on laboratory tests.

Geriatrics (≥ 65 years of age):

A careful risk benefit assessment is required before MONOFERRIC is used in patients aged > 65 years and close monitoring for adverse events is required (see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Special Populations, Geriatrics).

Pediatrics (< 18 years of age):

MONOFERRIC has not been evaluated in patients less than 18 years of age.

Contraindications

  • Patients who are hypersensitive to this drug or any of the excipients.  For a complete listing, see DOSAGE FORMS, COMPOSITION AND PACKAGING
  • Known serious hypersensitivity to other parenteral iron products
  • History of multiple allergies
  • Non-iron deficiency anaemia (e.g. hemolytic anaemia)
  • Iron overload or disturbances in utilization of iron (e.g. hemochromatosis, hemosiderosis)
  • Decompensated liver cirrhosis or active hepatitis

Warnings And Precautions

Serious Warnings and Precautions

MONOFERRIC is contraindicated in patients with any allergy to this drug or known serious hypersensitivity to other parenteral iron products or in patients with any known history of multiple allergies.

The following are clinically significant adverse events:

  • Serious hypersensitivity reactions including life threatening and fatal anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients receiving intravenous iron products including MONOFERRIC (see Immune, Hypersensitivity below).
  • Serious cases of hypotension (see Cardiovascular below).

MONOFERRRIC should only be administered when personnel and therapies are immediately available for the treatment of anaphylaxis and other hypersensitivity reactions (see Immune, Hypersensitivity below).

Patients should be carefully monitored for signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity reactions including monitoring of blood pressure and pulse during and for at least 30 minutes following each administration of MONOFERRIC.

General

Excessive therapy with parenteral iron can lead to excess storage of iron and possible iatrogenic hemosiderosis. Do not administer MONOFERRIC to patients with iron overload (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis

Carcinogenicity studies have not been conducted. Iron isomaltoside showed no evidence of genotoxicity or mutagenicity in a standard battery of tests. These included an in vitro Ames test with and without metabolic activation, an in vitro human lymphocyte chromosome aberration test with and without metabolic activation and an in vivo mouse micronucleus test.

Cardiovascular

In clinical studies hypotension was reported in < 1% (16/1640) of patients, including serious events in < 1% (2/1640) of patients who received MONOFERRIC.  Hypotension has also been reported in the post-marketing experience. Hypotensive episodes may occur if intravenous injection is administered too rapidly. Observe patients for signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity including hypotension during and for at least 30 minutes following each administration.

Immune

Hypersensitivity: Parenterally administered iron preparations can cause hypersensitivity reactions including serious and potentially fatal anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions. Hypersensitivity reactions have also been reported after previously uneventful doses of parenteral iron complexes. MONOFERRIC is contraindicated in patients with known serious hypersensitivity to other parenteral iron products (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

The risk is enhanced for patients with known allergies including drug allergies, including patients with a history of severe asthma, eczema or other atopic allergy.

There is also an increased risk of hypersensitivity reactions to parenteral iron complexes in patients with immune or inflammatory conditions (e.g. systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis).

MONOFERRIC may cause life-threatening and fatal hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis and/or anaphylactoid reactions. In clinical trials, severe or serious hypersensitivity reactions were reported in 1.04 % (17/1640) of patients who received MONOFERRIC and 0.43 % (7/1640) of these patients reported a severe or serious hypersensitivity reaction within 1 day of dosing. Hypersensitivity reactions have been seen in spontaneously reported adverse events from post-marketing experience (see ADVERSE REACTIONS, Post-market Adverse Drug Reactions).

MONOFERRIC should only be administered when personnel and therapies are immediately available for the treatment of anaphylaxis and other hypersensitive reactions.  Observe patients for signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity during and for at least 30 minutes following each administration of MONOFERRIC. If hypersensitivity reactions or signs of intolerance occur during administration, the treatment must be stopped immediately.

Infection: There is a risk that iron preparations enhance bacterial growth and inhibit leucocyte function and phagocytosis. Parenteral iron should be used with caution in case of severe acute or chronic infection. In patients with chronic infection a risk/benefit evaluation has to be performed, taking into account the suppression of erythropoiesis. MONOFERRIC should not be used in patients with ongoing bacteraemia.  

Sexual Function/Reproduction

Iron isomaltoside 1000 did not affect fertility in male or female rats when administered intravenous (IV) at up to 19 mg/kg/day in males and 32 mg/kg/day in females (3 and 2.5 times the maximum recommended human (2000 mg in a 70 kg human) exposure from a single course of MONOFERRIC). Degenerative changes of the male reproductive system of unknown reversibility were observed in male rats at 80 mg/kg/day thrice weekly (5 times the maximum recommended human exposure from a single course of MONOFERRIC) (see TOXICOLOGY).

Skin

MONOFERRIC should be administered with caution to avoid paravenous leakage during administration. Paravenous leakage may lead to irritation of the skin and long lasting brown discoloration at the injection site. In case of paravenous leakage, the administration of MONOFERRIC must be stopped immediately.

Hypophosphataemia

In clinical trials the frequencies of a transient drop in phosphate below 2 mg/dL have been 5-20% in patients treated with MONOFERRIC from the studies in patients with iron deficiency anemia of various aetiologies and 1-2% studies with chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Nadir was in the first weeks. No clinical symptoms were reported.  One of the risks with profound hypophosphataemia is osteomalacia which has been reported after repeated use of IV iron.  No cases of osteomalacia after MONOFERRIC use have been received.

Special Populations

Pregnant Women: There are no studies of MONOFERRIC in pregnant women.

Administration of iron isomaltoside 1000 in pregnant rats at IV doses of 11 and 32 mg Fe/kg/day for 14 days prior to cohabitation and 17 days during gestation (2 and 6 times the maximum recommended human (2000 mg in a 70 kg human) exposure from a single course of MONOFERRIC) resulted in an increase in the incidence of skeletal developmental delays (see TOXICOLOGY).

In pregnant rabbits, administration of 43 mg Fe/kg/day iron isomaltoside 1000 for 14 days (7 times the maximum recommended human exposure from a single course of MONOFERRIC) resulted in an increased mortality, abortion, and/or premature delivery, a higher mean litter proportion of postimplantation loss, a corresponding lower mean number and litter proportion of viable fetuses, and lower mean fetal weights. Fetal malformations indicating teratogenicity were noted in the 25 and 43 mg Fe/kg/day groups (4 and 7 times the maximum recommended human exposure from a single course of MONOFERRIC, respectively), and fetal developmental variations were noted in the 43 mg Fe/kg/day (see TOXICOLOGY).

Based on findings in nonclinical studies, MONOFFERIC should not be used during pregnancy; if pregnancy occurs, the patients should be informed of the potential risk. MONOFERRIC should not be used in women of childbearing potential not using adequate contraception.

Breast-feeding: Because many drugs are excreted in human milk precaution should be exercised. No formal clinical studies investigating excretion of MONOFERRIC have been performed.  A clinical study has shown that maternal milk iron level was higher 3 days after receiving MONOFERRIC compared to those receiving standard medical care (oral iron treatment), however, it had decreased to the same levels as the standard medical care group by week 1 (see DETAILED PHARMACOLOGY).

Pediatrics (< 18 years of age): MONOFERRIC has not been evaluated in patients less than 18 years of age.

Geriatrics (> 65): Clinical studies with MONOFERRIC have not identified differences in adverse reactions between elderly and younger adult patients, but there was a higher percentage of patients experiencing serious adverse events (SAEs) and adverse events (AEs) leading to fatal outcome in patients ≥ 65 years (SAEs: < 65 years at 6 %, ≥ 65 years at 19 %; AEs leading to fatal outcome: < 65 years at < 1 %, ≥ 65 years at 3 %). A careful risk benefit assessment is required before MONOFERRIC is used in patients aged > 65 years and close monitoring for adverse events is required.

Hepatic Impairment: MONOFERRIC is contraindicated in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis or active hepatitis (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).  In patients with compensated liver dysfunction, parenteral iron should only be administered after careful benefit/risk assessment.  Parenteral iron administration should be avoided in patients with hepatic dysfunction (alanine aminotransferase and/or aspartate aminotransferase > 3 times upper limit of normal) where iron overload is a precipitating factor, in particular Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT).  Careful monitoring of iron status is recommended to avoid iron overload.

Monitoring and Laboratory Tests

Patients must have confirmed iron deficiency anemia (IDA) based on appropriate laboratory tests before treatment (see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, General).

Regularly monitor the haematologic response and iron parameters, such as serum ferritin and transferrin saturation, during parenteral iron therapy.  Monitoring of iron parameters such as serum ferritin may assist in recognizing iron accumulation.

Monitor patient’s blood pressure and heart rate for signs and symptoms of hypotension before, during and for 30 minutes after each MONOFERRIC administration.  Each patient should be observed for adverse effects, including signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., urticaria, oedema, bronchospasm, hypotension, cardiorespiratory arrest, syncope, unresponsiveness, or loss of consciousness) during administration and for at least 30 minutes following each MONOFERRIC administration. If hypersensitivity reactions or signs of intolerance occur during administration, the treatment must be stopped immediately.  

Adverse Reactions

Adverse Drug Reaction Overview

Out of 1640 patients treated with MONOFERRIC in phase II and III clinical trials, 869 (53 %) patients reported a total of 2048 treatment-emergent AEs (TEAEs). The most common TEAEs (reported in more than 3 % of patients) by preferred term were headache (52 (3 %)), nasopharyngitis and nausea (45 (3 %) each), vomiting (43 (3 %)), and constipation (41 (3 %)).

Of the 2048 AEs, 193 (9.4 %) TEAEs were serious (SAE). The treatment-emergent SAEs were reported in 153 (9 %) patients. No treatment-emergent SAEs were reported in > 1 % in patients treated with MONOFERRIC. The most common SAE was pneumonia (10 patients) followed by malignant neoplasm progression (8 patients). A total of 10 SAEs reported in 9 patients (< 1 %) were considered as probably or possibly related to MONOFERRIC. These were anaphylactic reaction, staphylococcal sepsis, angina unstable, grand mal convulsion, dyspnea, rash pruritic, syncope and three cases of hypersensitivity.

Of the 1640 patients treated with MONOFERRIC in clinical trials, 43 (3 %) patients experienced TEAEs leading to withdrawal from study.

Overall in clinical trials, a total of 17/1640 (1.04 %) patients reported a serious or severe hypersensitivity reaction, in which 7 of these cases occurred within 1 day of dosing with MONOFERRIC.

Clinical Trial Adverse Drug Reactions

Because clinical trials are conducted under very specific conditions the adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials may not reflect the rates observed in practice and should not be compared to the rates in the clinical trials of another drug. Adverse drug reaction information from clinical trials is useful for identifying drug-related adverse events and for approximating rates.

Across the three randomized clinical trials a total of 795 patients received MONOFERRIC. A total of 228 non dialysis dependent patients with CKD (NDD-CKD) were exposed to MONOFERRIC in Study CKD-02. MONOFERRIC was administered either as IV infusions or IV bolus injections. The infusion was given in weekly doses for up to 2 weeks, to a maximum of 1000 mg iron each week until full replacement dose was achieved. The dose was diluted in 100 mL 0.9 % sodium chloride and given over approximately 15-20 minutes. Bolus injections of 500 mg were administered undiluted over approximately 2 minutes, once per week until full replacement dose was achieved. Oral iron was administered as 200 mg iron sulphate daily for 8 weeks. The mean cumulative dose of MONOFERRIC administered to the patients in the infusion and bolus subgroups were 907 ± 170 mg (range: 750:1500 mg) and 926 ± 241 mg (range: 500:2000 mg), respectively. The mean cumulative dose of iron isomaltoside 1000 was 916 ± 208 mg (500:2000 mg).

In Study IDA-01, a total of 333 patients with IDA of various causes other than CKD were exposed to MONOFERRIC, of which, 32 (9.6 %) received a cumulative dose of 1000 mg, 164 (49.2 %) received a cumulative dose of 1500 mg, and 130 (39.0 %) received a cumulative dose of 2000 mg. Seven (2.1 %) patients were listed as receiving ‘other’ cumulative dose. MONOFERRIC was administered either as an IV infusion of 1000 mg over approximately 15 minutes or as an IV injection of 500 mg over 2 minutes per week, for an individual dose up to a maximum cumulative dose of 2000 mg. A total of 168 patients received 200 mg of IV iron sucrose by infusion up to twice weekly up to a cumulative dose of 2000 mg.

In Study CKD-03, a total of 230 hemodialysis-dependent CKD (DD-CKD) patients were exposed to MONOFERRIC, of which, 114 (50 %) received a dose of 500 mg by IV single bolus injection and 116 (50 %) received a total dose of 500 mg as fractionated (100 mg + 200 mg + 200 mg) IV bolus injections. A total of 117 patients received 500 mg of IV iron sucrose administered as 500 mg fractionated (100 mg + 200 mg + 200 mg) IV bolus injections.

Table 1: Clinical Trial TEAEs Reported in ≥ 1% Patients by Study (Study CKD-02 in patients with NDD-CKD, Study IDA-01 in patients with IDA* and Study CKD-03 in DD-CKD patients)
*
Causes of IDA included different etiologies: such as abnormal uterine bleeding, gastrointestinal diseases, cancer, bariatric procedures and other conditions leading to significant blood loss.

CKD-02

CKD-03

IDA-01

Iron Isomaltoside 1000

Iron Sulphate Oral

Iron Isomaltoside 1000

Iron Sucrose

Iron Isomaltoside 1000

Iron Sucrose

N

(%)

N

(%)

N

(%)

N

(%)

N

(%)

N

(%)

Safety Analysis Set

228

117

230

114

333

168

Any AE(S)

95

(42%)

53

(45%)

110

(48%)

47

(41%)

144

(43%)

65

(39%)

Gastrointestinal Disorders

22

(10%)

15

(13%)

19

(8%)

6

(5%)

47

(14%)

19

(11%)

- Nausea

2

(<1%)

2

(2%)

1

(<1%)

17

(5%)

7

(4%)

- Faeces Discoloured

5

(4%)

2

(<1%)

- Diarrhoea

7

(3%)

4

(3%)

5

(2%)

2

(2%)

4

(1%)

5

(3%)

- Vomiting

6

(3%)

1

(<1%)

3

(1%)

2

(2%)

7

(2%)

5

(3%)

- Constipation

4

(2%)

2

(2%)

2

(<1%)

1

(<1%)

5

(2%)

- Abdominal Pain

1

(<1%)

5

(2%)

1

(<1%)

- Dyspepsia

1

(<1%)

1

(<1%)

1

(<1%)

3

(<1%)

2

(1%)

Nervous System Disorders

14

(6%)

6

(5%)

13

(6%)

6

(5%)

30

(9%)

23

(14%)

- Headache

2

(<1%)

2

(2%)

7

(3%)

4

(4%)

18

(5%)

11

(7%)

- Dysgeusia

1

(<1%)

2

(<1%)

5

(3%)

- Dizziness

5

(2%)

1

(<1%)

9

(3%)

4

(2%)

- Paraesthesia

1

(<1%)

3

(1%)

1

(<1%)

1

(<1%)

Infections And Infestations

25

(11%)

12

(10%)

22

(10%)

15

(13%)

24

(7%)

10

(6%)

- Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

1

(<1%)

1

(<1%)

1

(<1%)

4

(1%)

6

(4%)

- Nasopharyngitis

7

(3%)

4

(3%)

6

(3%)

1

(<1%)

3

(<1%)

- Lower Respiratory Tract Infection

1

(<1%)

1

(<1%)

4

(2%)

3

(3%)

- Urinary Tract Infection

4

(2%)

1

(<1%)

8

(2%)

1

(<1%)

- Pneumonia

2

(<1%)

2

(2%)

1

(<1%)

1

(<1%)

Injury, Poisoning And Procedural Complications

2

(<1%)

25

(11%)

9

(8%)

4

(1%)

4

(2%)

- Fall

1

(<1%)

7

(3%)

- Procedural Hypotension

5

(2%)

1

(<1%)

- Arteriovenous Fistula Site Complication

2

(<1%)

2

(2%)

- Procedural Hypertension

3

(1%)

- Contusion

1

(<1%)

2

(1%)

General Disorders And Administration Site Conditions

23

(10%)

9

(8%)

10

(4%)

5

(4%)

26

(8%)

14

(8%)

- Pyrexia

7

(3%)

4

(3%)

1

(<1%)

6

(2%)

- Fatigue

3

(1%)

4

(1%)

5

(3%)

- Oedema Peripheral

5

(2%)

2

(2%)

1

(<1%)

- Chills

2

(2%)

2

(<1%)

1

(<1%)

- Device Malfunction

2

(2%)

- Infusion Site Extravasation

2

(1%)

Skin And Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders

10

(4%)

1

(<1%)

9

(4%)

4

(4%)

31

(9%)

7

(4%)

- Rash

2

(<1%)

14

(4%)

1

(<1%)

- Pruritus

1

(<1%)

3

(1%)

2

(2%)

6

(2%)

1

(<1%)

- Skin Exfoliation

5

(2%)

- Pruritus Generalised

3

(1%)

- Hyperhidrosis

2

(1%)

- Skin Discolouration

2

(<1%)

2

(1%)

Musculoskeletal And Connective Tissue Disorders

10

(4%)

3

(3%)

16

(7%)

1

(<1%)

27

(8%)

9

(5%)

- Back Pain

5

(2%)

8

(2%)

2

(1%)

- Pain In Extremity

1

(<1%)

1

(<1%)

5

(2%)

2

(<1%)

- Arthralgia

4

(2%)

7

(2%)

2

(1%)

- Myalgia

5

(2%)

1

(<1%)

- Muscle Spasms

3

(1%)

1

(<1%)

3

(1%)

4

(1%)

1

(<1%)

- Muscular Weakness

1

(<1%)

2

(<1%)

2

(1%)

Metabolism And Nutrition Disorders

12

(5%)

2

(2%)

8

(3%)

8

(7%)

9

(3%)

2

(1%)

- Hyperphosphataemia

1

(<1%)

5

(2%)

4

(4%)

1

(<1%)

- Hyperkalaemia

6

(3%)

1

(<1%)

1

(<1%)

1

(<1%)

- Hypophosphataemia

6

(2%)

Investigations

9

(4%)

2

(2%)

11

(5%)

5

(4%)

13

(4%)

7

(4%)

- C-Reactive Protein Increased

6

(3%)

1

(<1%)

4

(1%)

3

(2%)

- Blood Glucose Increased

2

(2%)

- Electrocardiogram St Segment Depression

2

(2%)

- Alanine Aminotransferase Increased

1

(<1%)

5

(2%)

2

(1%)

- Aspartate Aminotransferase Increased

1

(<1%)

5

(2%)

2

(1%)

- Blood Calcium Decreased

3

(1%)

Respiratory, Thoracic And Mediastinal Disorders

4

(2%)

5

(4%)

6

(3%)

2

(2%)

14

(4%)

6

(4%)

- Cough

2

(2%)

2

(<1%)

5

(2%)

1

(<1%)

- Dyspnoea

2

(<1%)

2

(2%)

1

(<1%)

1

(<1%)

5

(2%)

1

(<1%)

- Oropharyngeal Pain

1

(<1%)

5

(2%)

- Asthma

1

(<1%)

2

(1%)

Vascular Disorders

8

(4%)

4

(3%)

8

(3%)

1

(<1%)

13

(4%)

6

(4%)

- Hypertension

7

(3%)

2

(2%)

3

(1%)

1

(<1%)

5

(2%)

1

(<1%)

- Hypotension

1

(<1%)

3

(1%)

2

(<1%)

- Hot Flush

2

(<1%)

2

(1%)

Blood And Lymphatic System Disorders

2

(<1%)

2

(2%)

2

(<1%)

2

(2%)

1

(<1%)

5

(3%)

- Anaemia

1

(<1%)

2

(2%)

1

(<1%)

1

(<1%)

1

(<1%)

- Neutropenia

2

(1%)

Cardiac Disorders

5

(2%)

2

(1%)

- Palpitations

1

(<1%)

2

(1%)

Reproductive System And Breast Disorders

5

(2%)

3

(2%)

- Menorrhagia

3

(<1%)

2

(1%)


N: Number of Patients
(%): Percentage of Patients

Hypophosphataemia:

In Study IDA-01, 65 (19.5 %) patients in the MONOFERRIC group and 7 (4.2 %) patients in the iron sucrose group had serum phosphate (s-phosphate) level < 2 mg/dL. Hypophosphataemia defined as s-phosphate < 2 mg/dL was reported in 3 patients in CKD-02 and 4 patients in CKD-03 (1.3 % and 1.7 % , respectively) in the MONOFERRIC group compared to 1 patient (< 1 %) in the oral iron sulfate group in Study CKD-02 and 2 patients (1.8 %) in the iron sucrose group in Study CKD-03.

One (1) patient treated with MONOFERRIC had s-phosphate level < 1 mg/dL (0.8 mg/dL) at week 4 which was normalised (2.6 mg/dL) at the following visit in Study IDA-01. Two patients of the patients in the MONOFERRIC group had s-phosphate level < 1 mg/dL in Study CKD-03 and none in Study CKD-02.

Most patients exposed to MONOFERRIC had low s-phosphate values for 1-4 weeks and 7 (2.2 %) patients had s-phosphate < 2 mg/dL at week 5 in Study IDA-01. In the iron sucrose group, most patients had low s-phosphate values for 1-2 weeks and 1 patient had s-phosphate < 2 mg/dL at week 5. Thus, the hypophosphataemia events were transient and in most cases normalised at the end of the trial.

No event of hypophosphataemia was considered as an AE in both Study CKD-02 and CKD-03 but was reported as an AE in Study IDA-01 in 6 (2 %) patients.

Post-Market Adverse Drug Reactions

Because these adverse events are spontaneously reported in a voluntary manner from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency. The following adverse reactions have been reported from the post-marketing spontaneous reports with MONOFERRIC:

Cardiac disorders:

Bradycardia foetal, cardiac arrest, tachycardia

General disorders and administration site conditions:

Asthenia, chest discomfort, chest pain, chills, feeling abnormal, feeling hot, influenza like illness, infusion site erythema, injection site discolouration, injection site extravasation, pain

Immune:

Hypersensitivity, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions, including very rare cases of anaphylactic shock with a fatal outcome, have been reported

Investigations:

Blood pressure decreased, blood pressure increased, body temperature increased

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders:

Joint swelling, pain in extremity

Nervous system disorders:

Burning sensation, cerebrovascular accident, generalized tonic-clonic seizure, head discomfort, loss of consciousness, paraesthesia, seizure, syncope, tremor

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders:

Asphyxia, bronchospasm, pharyngeal edema, respiratory arrest, respiratory distress, wheezing

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders:

Angioedema, dermatitis allergic, erythema, generalized erythema, purpura, rash generalized, skin discolouration, swelling face, urticaria

Vascular disorders:

Circulatory collapse, flushing, hypotension, shock

Drug Interactions

Overview

As with all parenteral iron preparations the absorption of oral iron is reduced when administered concomitantly. Oral iron therapy should not be started earlier than 5 days after the last injection of MONOFERRIC.

Drug-Drug Interactions

Drug interaction studies with MONOFERRIC have not been conducted.

Drug-Food Interactions

Drug-food interaction studies with MONOFERRIC have not been conducted.

Drug-Herb Interactions

Drug-herb interaction studies with MONOFERRIC have not been conducted.

Drug-Laboratory Interactions

Parenteral iron may cause falsely elevated values of serum bilirubin and falsely decreased values of serum calcium.

Large doses of parenteral iron have been reported to give a brown colour to serum from a blood sample drawn four hours after administration.

Drug-Lifestyle Interactions

No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed.

Dosage And Administration

Dosing Considerations

The dose of MONOFERRIC (Iron Isomaltoside 1000 for Injection) is expressed in terms of mg of elemental iron, with each mL of undiluted MONOFERRIC containing 100 mg of elemental iron.

Recommended Dose and Dosage Adjustment

The iron need and the administration schedule for MONOFERRIC must be individually established for each patient. The optimal haemoglobin (Hb) target level and iron stores may vary in different patient groups and between patients. Iron deficiency anaemia will not appear until essentially all iron stores have been depleted. Iron therapy should therefore replenish both haemoglobin iron and iron stores.

The cumulative iron need can be determined using either the Ganzoni formula (1) or the Simplified Table below (2). In the clinical studies with CKD patients, the Ganzoni formula was used and in the clinical study with IDA patients of various causes other than CKD, the Simplified table was used.

  1. Ganzoni formula:
    (A)
    It is recommended to use the patient’s ideal body weight for obese patients. Ideal body weight may be calculated in a number of ways e.g. by calculating weight at BMI 25 i.e. ideal body weight = 25 * (height in m)2
    (B)
    To convert Hb [mM] to Hb [g/dL] you should multiply Hb [mM] by factor 1.61145
    (C)
    Factor 2.4 = 0.0034 x 0.07 x 10,000
    0.0034: Iron content of haemoglobin is 0.34 %
    0.07: Blood volume 70 mL/kg of body weight ≈7% of body weight 10,000: The conversion factor 1 g/dL = 10,000 mg/L
    (D)
    For a person with a body weight above 35 kg, the iron stores are 500 mg or above. Iron stores of 500 mg are at the lower limit normal for small women. Some guidelines suggest using 10-15 mg iron /kg body weight and others 1000 mg iron as stores.
    (E)
    Default Hb target is 15 g/dL in the Ganzoni formula. Consider using a lower haemoglobin target as appropriate based on clinical judgement.
    Iron need = Body weight(A) x (Target Hb(E) – Actual Hb)(B) x 2.4(C) + depot iron (D)
    [mg iron] [kg] [g/dL] [mg iron]
  2. Simplified Table:
Iron need

Hb (g/dL)

Patients with bodyweight <70 kg

Patients with body weight ≥70 kg

≥10

1000 mg

1500 mg

<10

1500 mg

2000 mg

Administration

Inspect vials visually for sediment and damage before use. Use only those containing sediment-free, homogeneous solution.

MONOFERRIC should only be administered when personnel trained to evaluate and manage anaphylactic reactions are immediately available, in an environment where full resuscitation facilities can be assured. Monitor patients carefully for signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity reactions during and following each administration of MONOFERRIC. The patient should be observed for adverse effects for at least 30 minutes following each MONOFERRIC administration (see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Immune, Hypersensitivity and Monitoring and Laboratory Tests).

Each IV iron administration is associated with a risk of a hypersensitivity reaction. Thus, to minimize risk the number of single IV iron administrations should be kept to a minimum.

MONOFERRIC can be administered either as an intravenous bolus injection, or as an intravenous drip infusion or as a direct injection into the venous limb of the dialyzer.

Intravenous bolus injection:
MONOFERRIC may be administered as an intravenous bolus injection up to 500 mg up to once a week at an administration rate of up to 250 mg iron/minute. It may be administered undiluted or diluted in maximum 20 mL sterile 0.9 % sodium chloride.

Intravenous drip infusion:
The cumulative iron dose required may be administered in a single MONOFERRIC infusion up to 20 mg iron/kg body weight or as weekly infusions until the cumulative iron dose has been administered.

If the cumulative iron dose exceeds 20 mg iron/kg body weight, the dose must be split in two administrations with an interval of at least one week. It is recommended whenever possible to give 20 mg iron/kg body weight in the first administration. Dependent on clinical judgement the second administration could await follow-up laboratory tests.

Doses up to 1000 mg must be administered over 20 minutes or more.
Doses exceeding 1000 mg must be administered over 30 minutes or more.
Single doses above 1500 mg are not recommended.

MONOFERRIC must only be diluted in sterile 0.9 % sodium chloride solution. MONOFERRIC should not be diluted to concentrations less than 1 mg iron/mL (not including the volume of the iron isomaltoside 1000 solution) and should be added to maximum 500 mL sterile 0.9 % sodium chloride.

Injection into dialyzer:
MONOFERRIC may be administered during a hemodialysis session directly into the venous limb of the dialyzer under the same procedures as outlined for intravenous bolus injection.

Overdosage

For management of a suspected drug overdose, contact your regional Poison Control Centre.

Overdose may lead to accumulation of iron in storage sites eventually leading to hemosiderosis. Monitoring of iron parameters such as serum ferritin may assist in recognizing iron accumulation. Supportive measures such as chelating agents can be used.

Do not administer MONOFERRIC to patients with iron overload. See CONTRAINDICATIONS.

Action And Clinical Pharmacology

Mechanism of Action

Iron is essential to the synthesis of haemoglobin to maintain oxygen transport and to the function and formation of the physiologically important heme and non-heme compounds.

MONOFERRIC (Iron Isomaltoside 1000 for Injection) is a colloid with strongly bound iron in spheroidal iron-carbohydrate particles. The structure of the iron isomaltoside 1000 particle has been characterized by carbon 13 NMR spectroscopic analysis which reveals that the complex forms a stable matrix type structure with about 10 iron (III) atoms to one molecule of isomaltoside pentamer with the iron(III) bound in cavities of the 3-D structure of isomaltoside pentamers, leading to a low content of free iron based on in vitro data.

The isomaltoside 1000 component of MONOFERRIC consists of 3-5 glucose units with an average molecular weight of approximately 1000 Da. It has no detectable branching structures as evidenced by careful 13C and 1H NMR spectroscopic analysis. Furthermore isomaltoside 1000 does not contain any reducing sugar residues, which can be involved in complex redox reactions. The MONOFERRIC formulation contains iron in a complex with isomaltoside 1000 that releases bioavailable iron to iron-binding proteins.

Pharmacodynamics

Evidence of a therapeutic response can be seen within a few days of administration of MONOFERRIC as an increase in the reticulocyte count.

Serum ferritin peaks approximately 7 to 9 days after an intravenous dose of MONOFERRIC and slowly returns to baseline after about 3 weeks.

Pharmacokinetics

MONOFERRIC pharmacokinetics was examined across four patient populations. In patients with inflammatory bowel disease, non-haematological malignancies associated with chemotherapy induced anaemia, in stage 5 chronic kidney disease on dialysis therapy and non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease. MONOFERRIC pharmacokinetics was examined across a dose range of 100 to 1000 mg. There is no data investigating the pharmacokinetics of single or multiple doses of MONOFERRIC above 1000 mg.

MONOFERRIC demonstrates dose proportional increases up to 500 mg. MONOFERRIC demonstrated linear pharmacokinetics up to 500 mg, with higher doses demonstrating dose dependent pharmacokinetics.

Distribution:
Following intravenous administration of iron complex, it is taken up by the cells in the reticuloendothelial system (RES), particularly in the liver and spleen from where iron is slowly released.

Metabolism:
Circulating iron is removed from the plasma by cells of the RES. The iron is immediately bound to the available protein moieties to form hemosiderin or ferritin, the physiological storage forms of iron, or to a lesser extent, to the transport molecule transferrin. This iron, which is subject to physiological control, replenishes haemoglobin and depleted iron stores.

Excretion:
After administration of a single dose of MONOFERRIC of 100 to 1000 mg of iron in the pharmacokinetic studies, the iron injected or infused was cleared from the plasma with a half-life that ranged from 1 to 4 days. Renal elimination of iron was negligible.

Iron is not easily eliminated from the body and accumulation can be toxic. Due to the size of the complex, MONOFERRIC is not eliminated via the kidneys. Small quantities of iron are eliminated in urine and faeces.

Special Populations

Breast-feeding: In a clinical study in women with post-partum hemorrhage, maternal milk iron levels were measured in a subset of patients. Levels were found to be higher at day 3 in the MONOFERRIC group, decreasing to the same levels as the standard medical care (oral iron treatment) group at week 1 (see DETAILED PHARMACOLOGY).

Storage And Stability

Store between 15-30 ºC. Do Not Freeze.

For storage conditions of the diluted solution, see below.

MONOFERRIC (Iron Isomaltoside 1000 for Injection) must be only mixed with sterile 0.9 % sodium chloride. No other intravenous dilution solutions should be used. No other therapeutic agents should be added. For dilution instructions, see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

MONOFERRIC is for single use only and any unused solution should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

Shelf life after first opening (undiluted):

From a microbiological point of view, the product should be used immediately.

Shelf life after dilution with sterile 0.9 % sodium chloride:

From a microbiological point of view, preparations for parenteral administration should be used immediately after dilution with sterile 0.9 % sodium chloride solution.

Special Handling Instructions

Inspect vials/ampoules visually for sediment and damage before use. Use only those containing sediment-free, homogeneous solution.

The reconstituted solution for injection should be visually inspected prior to use. Use only clear solutions without sediment.

Dosage Forms, Composition And Packaging

MONOFERRIC (Iron Isomaltoside 1000 for Injection) is a dark brown, non-transparent, sterile aqueous colloidal preservative-free solution. Each mL of MONOFERRIC contains the equivalent of 100 mg of elemental iron in Water for Injection (WFI). Hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide may be added to adjust the pH.

MONOFERRIC is available in glass single use vials.

MONOFERRIC is available in the following formats:

Single dose vial size

Number of vials per box

1 mL

5

5 mL

1 or 5

10 mL

1 or 2

 

Control #: 193890
June 22, 2018

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